How to analyse a Balance-sheet?

(This article explains the meanings of  current assets, fixed assets, intangible assets, share capital, reserve and surplus, long-term liabilities, current liabilities, contingent liabilities & assets.) A balance sheet is a financial statement of an entity which is prepared for reporting of financial position of the business as at a particular date. The balance sheet is so…

Cash Budget pattern of financing

[Cash Budget pattern of financing seasonal productions like sugar, tea and construction activities] The request for financial assistance from  business enterprises dealing in seasonal products like sugar, tea, construction activities, film industries, order based activities etc. are facilitated by the banks through Cash Budget  financing plans. In such pattern of business dealings, the requirement of…

How to compute working capital limits under Turn-over method/Nayak committee

(Nayak Committee norms for computation of working capital limits) The term working capital means sum of the funds invested at various current assets used in the operating cycle, by the industrial and trading establishments. Operating cycle means the length of time required to convert ‘Non-Cash current assets’, (like raw material (RM), work in process (WIP), finished goods (FG),…

What are the methods used for working capital appraisal?

(This post explains the definitions of   working capital ,  Operating cycle  and various methods of working capital appraisal viz.  Tandon’s first method, Tandon’s second method,Turnover method or Nayak committee norms, Cash budget method, Chore committee norms,  Maximum permissible bank finance, Minimum permissible bank finance and Important things to note in assessment of working capital…

How to process credit proposal?

Credit Appraisal is a knack of adapting certain precautions at the time of new sanction or renewal or enhancement of existing limit. Credit Appraisal revolves around the credit investigation to determine the economic and business environment in which prospective borrower is placed. The process involves assessment of honesty and integrity of the borrower, standing of the borrower,…

What are the papers examined by banks for credit appraisal?

Commercial Banks extend varieties of credit facilities to different types of customer viz. Individual, Sole Proprietor, Partnership firm, HUF, Trust, Club, Societies, Association, Limited Company, Public Sector Undertaking, Consortium advance etc. Depending upon type of borrower and nature of credit facilities required, bank will call for certain non-financial papers to examine along with financial papers.…